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NASA Ball NASA
Procedural
Requirements
NPR 8020.12D
Effective Date: April 20, 2011
Expiration Date: April 20, 2016
COMPLIANCE IS MANDATORY
Printable Format (PDF)

(NASA Only)

Subject: Planetary Protection Provisions for Robotic Extraterrestrial Missions

Responsible Office: Science Mission Directorate


| TOC | Preface | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | Chapter4 | Chapter5 | AppdendixA | AppendixB | AppendixC | AppendixD | ALL |

Chapter 1. Planetary Protection Categorization of Missions

1.1 Overview

1.1.1 Each planetary mission shall be assigned one or more PP categories based on the planetary protection priorities of each extraterrestrial solar system body and the mission plan. Planetary protection priorities and corresponding mission PP categories are given in Table 1. Each PP category has different planetary protection requirements, as described in Chapter 2 of this document. Mission PP categorization is determined by the PPO, upon request from the flight project as specified in section 2.1.2.

Table 1. Mission Planetary Protection Categories

Planetary Target Priority Mission Type Mission PP Category
Not of direct interest for understanding the process of chemical evolution or where exploration will not be jeopardized by terrestrial contamination. No protection of such planets is warranted, and no requirements are imposed. Any I
Of significant interest relative to the process of chemical evolution but only a remote chance that contamination by spacecraft could compromise future investigations. Any II
Of significant interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and/or the origin of life and for which scientific opinion provides a significant chance that contamination by spacecraft could compromise future investigations. Flyby, Orbiter III
Of significant interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and/or the origin of life and for which scientific opinion provides a significant chance that contamination by spacecraft could compromise future investigations. Lander, Probe IV
Any Solar System Mission All Earth Return V
Unrestricted Earth Return
Restricted Earth Return

Notes:
1) For missions that target or encounter multiple planets, more than one PP category may be specified for planets targeted or encountered.

2) For missions utilizing gravity assist by means of a flyby of another planet, requirements will typically be those for the target requiring the higher degree of protection.

1.2 Relationship to Planetary Flight Project's Project Plan

1.2.1 NPD 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, requires the preparation of a Project Plan during the formulation of any flight project. The Project Plan shall specify how the project will incorporate any required planetary protection planning. The scope of planetary protection information to be included and the level of detail will vary with each Project Plan. In general, planetary protection planning should be described so as to be consistent with other elements of the Project Plan.

1.2.2 The management approach, a part of each Project Plan, shall include the broad management aspects of the planetary protection activities of the project.

1.2.3 Required planetary protection planning documents, as specified in Chapter 2 of this document, shall be referenced in the Project Plan.

1.3 Deviations

1.3.1 The objectives of NASA's planetary protection policy, which is consistent with the policy and guidelines of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), shall be met at all times.

1.3.2 Deviations from the specific implementation approaches described in this NPR may be requested, as detailed in section 2.6 of this document. Such requests shall be subject to the review and written approval of the PPO and, when appropriate, by the SMD AA, as specified below.



| TOC | Preface | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | Chapter4 | Chapter5 | AppdendixA | AppendixB | AppendixC | AppendixD | ALL |
 
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