Effective Date: October 06, 2009
Expiration Date: September 13, 2021
|| TOC | ChangeHistory | Preface | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | Chapter4 | Chapter5 | Chapter6 | Chapter7 | AppendixA | AppendixB | AppendixC | AppendixD | AppendixE | AppendixF | AppendixG | AppendixH | ALL ||
Action Level, Noise. An 8-hour time-weighted average of 82 decibels measured on the A-scale, slow response, or equivalently, a dose of 50 percent. Employee exposure at or above the action level shall trigger enrollment into a hearing conservation program.
Active Managerial Control. The purposeful incorporation of specific actions or procedures by management into the operation of their establishment to attain control over risk factors.
Administrative Control. Any procedure that limits exposures through the restriction of area access, exposure times, distance, and/or work practices.
As Low As Is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). As defined in Title 10, Section 20.1003, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 20.1003), ALARA means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to ionizing radiation as far below the dose limits as practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest
As Low As Is Reasonable Practicable (ALARP). ALARP means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures (other than to ionizing radiation) as low as practicable, consistent with budgetary and operational constraints. In no case shall ALARP levels exceed legal or consensus OELs.
Audiometer. An electronic instrument used for measuring hearing threshold levels that conforms to the requirements and specification of the current American National Standard Institute (ANSI) S3.6, Specification for Audiometers standard.
Baseline Audiogram. The reference audiogram against which future audiograms are compared, typically resulting from an audiometric evaluation conducted at the time the employee is enrolled in the hearing conservation program.
Biological Agents. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms and their associated toxins that have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, and death.
"Buy Quiet and Quiet by Design" Programs. Site-specific programs that endeavor to achieve long-term reduction of employee noise exposures through purchase and design of equipment that meet realistic and achievable noise-emission criteria, which are considered before procurement or design. The "Buy Quiet and Quiet by Design" approach requires designers and engineers to consider noise emission when purchasing and designing equipment that is expected to generate noise emission levels of concern for hearing conservation (80 dBA and higher).
Calibration. A check of proper functioning and stability of a measurement instrument by various means. In cases where methods or requirements vary, the methodology or specification that results in the most accurate data collection shall apply.
Competent Person. OSHA defines competent person as "one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them".
Cottage Foods. State defined but in general, non-time-temperature control for safety foods such as baked goods, jams, and jellies produced at a cottage food operation. Acidified foods, low-acid canned foods, garlic in oil, and fresh fruit or vegetable juices are examples of foods that present a food safety risk and may not be produced at a cottage food operation. NOTE: Cottage food laws vary by state and some may be less or more restrictive than defined here. Centers should follow the most restrictive requirements.
Cottage Food Vendor. State defined but in general, a person who produces cottage foods in the home kitchen of their primary domestic residence and only for sale directly to the consumer. A cottage food operation is not permitted to operate as a food service establishment, retail food store, or wholesale food manufacturer.
Criterion Sound Level. A Time Weighted Average (TWA) occupational noise exposure level, expressed in decibels on the A-weighted scale (DVA) with a decibel (dB) exchange rate. NASA's criterion sound level, or 100% dose, is the equivalent of 85 dBA, 8-hour TWA, with a 3 dB exchange rate, as shown in Table 2 of the document.
Critical Incident Stress Management: The constellation of services or activities that may be used by an organization to respond to and manage a critical incident. Services and activities include, but are not limited to, debriefings, outreach to the workforce, psycho-educational activities related to trauma, anniversary responses, etc.
Decibel A-weighted (dBA). A sound level reading in decibels made on the A-weighted network of a Sound Level Meter (SLM) at slow response.
Decibels, Peak (dBP). The highest instantaneous sound level measured. Commonly used to measure impulsive or impact noise. This quantity cannot be measured on the slow response A-weighted scale and is usually measured on the C-weighted scale.
De-rating. The process of reassigning the manufacturers' values of hearing protectors to more realistic, real-world performance values.
Design Review. A formal documented and systematic examination of a design to evaluate facilities and/or operations relative to health, safety and other aspects.
Developmental Toxicity. Adverse effects on the developing organism that may occur anytime from conception to sexual maturity and include such effects as spontaneous abortion, structural or functional defects, low birth weight, or effects that may appear later in life.
Dose. The amount of any given substance absorbed by the body (including radiation and other energies).
Drug Free Workplace. Laws, regulations and policies emanating from Executive Order (EO) 12564 of September 15, 1986, and subsequently the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988, that ordered federal employees to refrain from using illegal drugs, whether on or off duty. It mandates that the head of each Executive agency shall develop a plan for achieving the objective of a drug-free workplace. Elements of the plan include establishing a program to test for the use of illegal drugs by employees in sensitive positions; training for managers and employees; and establishment of EAPs that emphasize high-level direction, education, counseling, referral to rehabilitation, and coordination with available community resources.
EAP Model. Refers to the method of delivering EAP services. The types of services offered through the EAP may vary but are typically delivered through a model such as:
1. Internal model, where the EAP staff is comprised of federal employees and there are no contractors involved.
2. External model, where the sponsoring federal agency has entered into a contract for an outside vendor to provide all EAP-related services.
3. Blended model, where both federal and contract personnel are involved in the delivery of
EAP services. The federal employees usually have the role of monitoring the EAP contractor's services, billing, and performance, while also providing counseling and other administrative services.
4. Consortium model, where a group of federal agencies contracting with one agency or
contractor to provide employee assistance services.
Employee Assistance Program (EAP). An EAP is a worksite-based program designed to assist in the identification and resolution of work-related and non-work-related productivity problems associated with employees impaired by personal concerns including, but not limited to, health, marital, family, financial, alcohol, drug, legal, emotional, or other personal concerns which may adversely affect employee job performance. The specific core activities of EAPs include (1) services for individuals (such as identification and resolution of job-performance issues related to an employee's personal concerns, and assessment, referral, and follow-up); (2) services for managers and supervisors (such as assistance in referring employees to the EAP, supervisor training, and management consulting); (3) services for organizations (such as violence prevention/crisis management, group interventions, and employee orientation); and (4) administrative services (such as the development of EAP policies and procedures, outreach, evaluation, and referral resources development).
Employer. NASA organizations and their associated contractors, to the extent specified in their respective contracts, and other Government agencies, their contractors, and tenants whose primary work is performed at a NASA Center.
Engineering Control. Any mechanical device or physical barrier that reduces the magnitude of an exposure along the path of propagation to the potentially exposed individual. Engineering controls should be employed first and do not include personal protective equipment or administrative controls.
Exchange Rate, Noise. The increase or decrease in decibels corresponding to twice (or half) the noise dose. When using a 3 dB exchange rate, a dose corresponding to an exposure of 85 dBA, 8-hour TWA represents twice the dose associated with an 82 dBA, 8-hour TWA exposure.
Farmers Market. A public and recurring assembly of farmers or their representatives (produce vendors) and cottage food vendors selling the food that they produced directly to consumers.
Farmers Market Vendor. An individual farmer or farmer's representative (produce vendor) or cottage food vendor who participates in farmers markets held onsite at NASA Centers through a signed agreement with the Center Market Manager.
Food Manager Certification. A written certification test that requires food managers to demonstrate a basic knowledge of food protection practices.
Food Safety Inspectors. Persons who have received specific training, and certification or standardization in the area of food inspection and regulations from an agency that regulates the food industry, or has been credentialed by a state or the National Environmental Health Association.
Functional Ability Evaluations. Evaluations performed for the purpose of determining a worker's ability to perform specific job tasks (ability) and job demands. Also includes the processes used to evaluate the ability of individuals to safely perform essential duties, if placed in a noisy work environment.
Hazard. A biological, physical, or chemical property that may cause an unsafe condition.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Methodology. A prevention-based food safety management system that identifies and monitors specific food safety hazards that can adversely affect the safety of food products.
Hazardous Noise Area. Any work area where the environmental noise level is at or above 85 dBA, or where the environmental impulse noise level is at or above 140 dBC peak or linear, regardless of duration of exposure or number of impulses.
Hazardous Substance or Article. Any material, object, or agent that, because of its quantity, concentration, physical, chemical, infectious, radioactive, or toxic properties poses a significant present or potential hazard to human health and safety by its misuse or if released into the workplace or the environment.
Hearing Threshold Level (HTL). The hearing level, above a reference value (audiometric zero), at which a specified sound or tone is heard by an ear in a specified fraction of the trials. For pure-tone air-conduction audiometry, hearing levels are sound pressure levels of pure tones at audiometric frequencies, such that 0 dB HTL, or audiometric zero, typifies the threshold of hearing of young ontologically-normal persons.
Impulsive or Impact Noise. Variations in noise levels that involve peaks of intensity that occur at intervals of greater than 1 second. If the noise peaks occur at intervals of 1 second or less, the noise is considered continuous.
Major Food Safety Incident. Any of the following or related events occurring at an establishment at NASA facilities on NASA property: a known poisoning resulting in hospitalization; two or more suspected poisonings; any known or suspected incident of food contamination resulting or potentially resulting in exposure to personnel; or any similar or related incidents. All major food safety incidents will be categorized and investigated based on NPR 8621.1, NASA Procedural Requirements for Mishap and Close Call Reporting, Investigating, and Recordkeeping.
Market Manager. A NASA civil service or contract (per the contractor's contract) employee responsible for operation of the farmers market, including vetting farmers market vendors to ensure they meet NASA's requirements for selling food at the market and working with the Food Safety Inspector to help farmers market vendors understand NASA food safety requirements and correct deficiencies noted during inspections.
Maximal medical improvement. A condition or state that is well stabilized and unlikely to change substantially in the next year, with or without medical treatment. Over time, there may be some change; however, further recovery or deterioration is not anticipated.
Nanoparticles. Materials that have at least one dimension (e.g., length, width, height, diameter) that is less than 100 nanometers. Nanoparticles may be suspended in a gas (e.g., nanoaerosol), suspended in a liquid (e.g., nanocolloid or nanohydrosol), or embedded in a matrix (e.g., nanocomposite).
Nanometer (nm). 1 x 10-9 meters or one millionth of a millimeter.
Noise Dose. A measure of cumulative noise exposure over a stated time period, which takes into account both the intensity of sound and the duration of exposure. Dose is a dimensionless quantity that represents the amount of actual noise exposure relative to the amount of allowable noise exposure (criterion level) and for which 100 percent and above represents noise exposures that are hazardous.
Noise Dosimeter. An instrument that integrates a function of sound pressure over a period of time in such a manner that it directly indicates a noise dose.
Noise Reduction Rating (NRR). A noise reduction value, in decibels, averaged across the frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz and computed from laboratory tests of the attenuation of hearing protectors measured under ideal conditions. The NRR, per a 1979 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulation, is required to appear on all devices worn on the head or ear that are sold for purposes of personal noise reduction. See "De-rating."
Noise Survey. A periodic or event-driven measurement of sound in areas where exposure to the sound level is likely to be hazardous.
Occupational Hearing Conservationist (OHC). Also known as an industrial audiometric technician. A person who is certified by the Council on Accreditation for Occupational Hearing Conservation (CAOHC) and conducts the practice of hearing conservation, including pure-tone air-conduction hearing testing and other associated duties under the supervision of an audiologist or physician.
Packaged Food. Food that is labeled in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, and the FDA Food Code. Proper labeling includes name of manufacturer and an accurate statement of the contents.
Pests. Any of various small animals or insects that are destructive or pose a health hazard to humans, plants, or animals in the environment.
Potentially Hazardous Food. A food, natural or synthetic, that requires temperature control because it is capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms.
Produce. Fruits and vegetables grown for human consumption.
Representative Exposure, Noise. Measurements of an employee's noise dose or 8-hour time-weighted average sound level that is representative of the exposure of other employees exposed to the same noise hazard.
Requirement. NASA Policy Directives (NPDs), NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) and external federal, state and local regulations and consensus standards applicable to NASA.
Reproductive Toxicity. Adverse effects on the health of the reproductive organs, endocrine system, or gametes (egg or sperm) from exposure to an exogenous agent that may result in effects such as menstrual dysfunction, impaired fertility, feminization/masculinization, or inability to maintain a pregnancy.
Retail Food Establishment. Any operation, with the exception of Farmers Markets, including childcare and NASA Exchange-operated facilities, that stores, prepares, packages, vends, or otherwise provides food for human consumption at NASA facilities or on NASA property and required to follow all the food safety requirements contained in this document.
Revised Baseline, Hearing Conservation. The most recent audiogram that has established a persistent STS or a significant improvement upon retest.
Risk-Based Inspection, Food Safety. An assessment of the degree of active managerial control that an operator has over the foodborne illness risk factors in the establishment; and the focusing of inspections on the control of foodborne illness risk factors, which embody a preventive rather than reactive approach to food safety.
Risk Factor, Food Safety. One of the broad categories of contributing factors to foodborne illness outbreaks, as identified in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Surveillance Report for 1993-1997. This report directly relates to foodborne safety concerns within retail and food service establishments. Food risk factors are: Food from Unsafe Sources, Inadequate Cooking Temperatures, Improper Holding Temperatures, Contaminated Equipment, and Poor Personal Hygiene.
Significant Improvement, Hearing Conservation. A significant improvement is shown if the average of thresholds at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz for either ear shows an improvement of 5 dB or more from the baseline audiogram.
Sound Pressure Level (SPL). 20 times the common logarithm of the ratio of the square of the measured A-weighted sound pressure to the square of the standard reference pressure of 20 micropascals.
Standard Threshold Shift (STS). A decline in hearing threshold, relative to the baseline audiogram, of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in either ear.
Temporary Event, Food Safety. A food establishment that operates in conjunction with a single event or celebration.
Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food. A food that requires time/temperature control for safety to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation.
Vector. An organism that is capable of transmitting a pathogen from one organism to another.
Work Role Position. Any job or function, held by a person at a NASA Center that does not change appreciably when a contract is awarded to a new contractor.
| TOC | ChangeHistory | Preface | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | Chapter4 | Chapter5 | Chapter6 | Chapter7 | AppendixA | AppendixB | AppendixC | AppendixD | AppendixE | AppendixF | AppendixG | AppendixH | ALL |
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