Effective Date: February 16, 2017
Expiration Date: February 16, 2024
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2.1.1 The Chief, SMA, as stated in NPD 1000.3, is responsible for advising the Administrator and other senior officials on matters related to risk, safety, and mission success. As part of this responsibility, the Chief, SMA:
a. Establishes Agency policy, requirements, and guidelines to limit the generation of orbital debris from and safely dispose of NASA's spacecraft, payloads, and launch vehicle components consistent with national policy and international guidelines.
b. Collects, develops, promulgates, and advises on procedures, tools, models, methods, and data bases, including characterizations and forecasts of the orbital debris and meteoroid environments, to assess and mitigate the risk of orbital debris generation, disposal operations, and orbital debris and meteoroid impacts.
c. Reviews, monitors, and periodically reports to the Agency on compliance with requirements to limit the generation of orbital debris and safely dispose of spacecraft, payloads, and launch vehicle components by NASA programs and projects.
d. Adjudicates requests for relief to requirements in this NPR and NASA-STD-8719.14 on behalf of the Administrator or elevates such decisions to the Administrator.
e. Initiates, in coordination with the relevant offices, notifications of external Agencies concerning significant events and non-compliances.
f. Assists the Department of Defense and other U.S. Government departments and organizations on matters related to the characterization of the orbital debris environment and the application of orbital debris mitigation measures and policies for NASA space missions.
g. In coordination with OIIR, promotes the determination, adoption, and use of international orbital debris mitigation guidelines through international forums, such as the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
2.1.2 The Chief, SMA established and maintains the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office and the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office to support the implementation of these responsibilities.
2.1.3 The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (NASA ODPO):
a. Develops, maintains, and updates the orbital debris environment models and associated uncertainties to support the Chief, SMA, and programs and projects with the mitigation of orbital debris risk, and compliance with this NPR.
b. Conducts measurements of the orbital debris environment and conducts other research as needed to support the development of the orbital debris environment models.
c. Assists NASA mission project managers in technical orbital debris assessments by providing information and completing evaluations of the Orbital Debris Assessment Reports (ODARs) and End of Mission Plans (EOMPs) on behalf of the SMA Technical Authority.
d. Assists the Department of Defense and other U.S. Government departments and organizations on matters related to the characterization of the orbital debris environment and the application of orbital debris mitigation measures and policies.
e. Contributes to the determination, adoption, and use of international orbital debris mitigation guidelines through international forums such as the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the IADC, and ISO.
2.1.4 The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (NASA MEO):
a. Provides technical expertise and assistance to NASA mission project managers on behalf of the SMA Technical Authority.
b. Performs and supports research into improved techniques for determination of the meteoroid environment.
c. Develops, validates, and updates meteoroid models and databases (such as the Meteoroid Environment Model, MEM) and makes those software tools available to NASA programs and partners.
d. Collects meteoroid data and information internal and external to NASA for use in environment model improvement and validation and risk and anomaly investigations. The MEO facilitates the collection of this data through the appropriate agreements and distribute subsets upon request.
e. Forecasts meteor shower activity and disseminates these forecasts to U.S. Government spacecraft missions and operators via the MEO Web site or by direct email to interested parties. The MEO also provides, when feasible, custom meteor shower forecasts to programs upon request and provides assistance in assessing the risks posed by meteor showers.
f. Tracks meteor events and updates the U.S. Government and public on the circumstances surrounding these events.
2.2.1 The Center-Level SMA Technical Authority, as defined in NPR 7120.5, oversees the implementation of requirements in this NPR and applicable standards and ensures the Chief, SMA is informed regarding potential concerns about non-compliances with these documents.
2.3.1 The MDAA sponsoring the mission is responsible for limiting the risks to the public and space environment associated with NASA missions and NASA-provided hardware to accepted levels.
Note: Responsibilities for the Program Office are those that are delegated from the respective MDAAs.
2.3.2 Accordingly, the MDAA sponsoring the mission:
a. Ensures compliance with this NPR and NASA-STD-8719.14 as part of mission and project formulation and acquisition decisions.
b. Ensures requirements to limit the generation of orbital debris from and safely dispose of spacecraft, payloads, and launch vehicle components are included in relevant program or project documentation.
c. In coordination with the MDAA responsible for the launch service, requests relief from requirements for launch vehicle non-compliance(s) with orbital debris mitigation requirements.
d. Requests relief from requirements for spacecraft, payload, or hardware non-compliance(s) with orbital debris mitigation requirements.
2.4.1 The Project Manager responsible for the mission, spacecraft, payloads, or hardware contributions to other spacecraft:
a. Ensures that the launch vehicle, spacecraft, payloads, or hardware contributions to other spacecraft comply with this NPR and NASA-STD-8719.14.
Note: Compliance for all secondary payloads (including small payloads such as CubeSats) is the responsibility of the secondary payload's Project Manager. The sponsoring MDAA is responsible for ensuring that the secondary payload's Project Manager is identified.
b. Provides documented evidence of compliance with orbital debris mitigation requirements and coordinates review and concurrence with the SMA Technical Authority for the Project.
c. Provides documented commands and passivation procedures to the spacecraft integration organization, (domestic or foreign partner responsible for spacecraft integration and operations), if applicable.
d. Evaluates the risk of orbital debris and meteoroid impacts to the project's mission objectives using appropriate environment models and failure criteria.
Note: Consult with the MEO and ODPO on the environment models.
e. Implements operational measures to limit the generation of orbital debris from and safely dispose of the spacecraft.
f. If the launch vehicle, spacecraft, payloads, or hardware contributions to other spacecraft are not, or not anticipated to be, in compliance with applicable orbital debris mitigation requirements, supports the MDAA responsible for the element in submittal of a waiver (relief from requirement), in coordination with the MDAA sponsoring the mission, if different.
g. Informs the Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) Team or NASA Human Space Flight Operations Directorate prior to execution of spacecraft maneuvers that will result in a change to their nominal mission orbit, allowing completion of analysis to prevent potential co-location or systematic conjunctions with debris or other on-orbit assets.
2.5.1 The LSPM is responsible for compliance with orbital debris mitigation requirements by the launch vehicles and components provided by LSP. Accordingly, for launch services provided by LSP, the LSPM:
a. Supports the Project Manager and MDAA to ensure that the launch vehicle, its components, and associated payload adapters comply with this NPR and NASA-STD-8719.14.
b. Provides documented evidence of compliance with orbital debris mitigation requirements to the Project Manager and MDAA.
c. If the launch vehicle or launch service is not, or is not anticipated to be, in compliance with applicable orbital debris requirements, supports the submittal of requests for relief from requirements by the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) AA and the MDAA sponsoring the mission.
2.6.1 In the case where there is foreign participation, OIIR, in coordination with the MDAA and OSMA, negotiates with the foreign partner, to establish which party is to be the lead organization for end of mission planning.
2.6.2 The AA/OIIR, following coordination with the Chief, SMA, notifies the Secretary of State of any non-compliance with the USG Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, as required by the June 2010 National Space Policy.
2.7.1 The NASA Robotic CARA Team at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) maintains liaison with the Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), the 18th Space Control Squadron (SCS), and the U.S. Air Force Space Command for ensuring the data needed for CARA assessments is provided to NASA and that information regarding upcoming maneuvers is delivered to JSpOC in a timely manner. CARA is the single point of contact to Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and the 18th SCS for all robotic mission Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and conjunction assessment activities, including the submission of Orbital Data Requests for related services.
2.7.2 The CARA team implements conjunction assessment-related requirements on behalf of the Agency for uncrewed missions and ensures the NASA Chief SMA and Chief Engineer are informed regarding concerns about non-compliance with these requirements.
2.7.3 The NASA CARA Team is a mission-funded Agency institutional resource. The NASA CARA Team assists NASA robotic spaceflight project managers in monitoring and identifying potential conjunctions and in developing possible maneuvers to avoid conjunctions.
2.7.4 The CARA Team maintains a process to receive and disposition data and communication requests in a timely manner.
2.7.5 The CARA Team evaluates the relevance, utility, and validity of commercial conjunction assessment tools to the Agency mission and coordinates with the funding Mission Directorate, OCE, and OSMA, to implement them as part of the Agency conjunction assessment process as appropriate.
2.8.1 The NASA Johnson Space Center Human Space Flight Operations Directorate, through the console positions Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) at the Johnson Space Center, maintains liaison with the DoD JSpOC, the 18th SCS, and the U.S. Space Command to maintain data regarding the International Space Station, Commercial Crew and Exploration vehicle orbital position. TOPO and FDO plan all orbital maneuvers.
2.8.2 TOPO and FDO are maintained by the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate and assists NASA human spaceflight project managers in monitoring and identifying potential conjunctions and developing possible maneuvers to avoid conjunctions. This includes risk assessments of ISS, its associated visiting vehicles with or without crew, and human exploration vehicles with or without crew.
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