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NASA Ball NASA
Procedural
Requirements
NPR 8715.6B
Effective Date: February 16, 2017
Expiration Date: February 16, 2024
COMPLIANCE IS MANDATORY FOR NASA EMPLOYEES
Printable Format (PDF)

Subject: NASA Procedural Requirements for Limiting Orbital Debris and Evaluating the Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Environments

Responsible Office: Office of Safety and Mission Assurance


| TOC | ChangeHistory | Preface | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | AppendixA | AppendixB | ALL |

Chapter 3. Requirements

3.1 Mission Formulation

3.1.1 The MDAA shall ensure that program and project documentation, to include proposals and Announcements of Opportunity for future missions, and project agreements incorporate requirements consistent with this NPR.

3.1.2 The MDAA, in coordination with OIIR, and in consultation with the applicable organizations as needed, shall ensure that negotiated agreements for space activities and launch services with governmental, non-governmental, and international organizations specify the lead organization for end of mission planning, conjunction assessment, and standards for the mitigation of orbital debris consistent with the requirements in this NPR or a partner's requirements.

3.1.3 This NPR defines NASA-STD-8719.14 as the applicable standard for the mitigation of orbital debris. Agreements for the delivery of hardware by NASA to another U.S. Government Agency, a U.S. non-governmental organization, or international partner, may include orbital debris standards other than NASA-STD-8719.14 with formal concurrence from the Chief, SMA that such an alternate standard meets the intent of NASA-STD-8719.14.

3.1.4 The MDAA shall define and assign responsibilities for the management of risks of non-compliance with applicable requirements to limit the generation of orbital debris from and safely dispose of objects by the integrated launch vehicle and spacecraft.

3.2 Mission Design and Assessment

3.2.1 The MDAA, in coordination with the Project Manager, shall procure, design, operate, and dispose of spacecraft, payloads, launch vehicles, and adapters and their components in accordance with NASA-STD-8719.14.

3.2.2 The Project Manager shall ensure that the mission and trajectory design minimizes, to the extent practical, the risk of collision with other operational spacecraft during the time period between the end of the launch phase and the point at which the spacecraft is incorporated into the JSpOC satellite catalog specific to its orbital regime.

3.2.3 The Project Manager responsible for the delivery of hardware to a non-NASA spacecraft integrator, including another U.S. Government Agency, a U.S. non-governmental organization, or an international partner, may design such hardware in accordance with an alternate standard if that standard is part of a formal agreement between NASA and the spacecraft integrator and is verified by the Chief, SMA as meeting the intent of NASA-STD-8719.14.

3.2.4 The Project Manager responsible for the integration of a spacecraft shall:

a. In coordination with the Mission Directorate, distribute and obtain concurrence on an ODAR covering the integrated spacecraft and launch vehicle in accordance with the schedule in Table A.

b. In coordination with the Mission Directorate, distribute and obtain concurrence on an EOMP covering the anticipated spacecraft configuration at the end of the spacecraft's mission in accordance with the schedule in Table A.

c. Establish and implement a plan to evaluate the risks posed by the meteoroid and orbital debris environment to spacecraft functionality and adopt mitigation approaches where warranted.

3.2.5 For launch services provided by the Launch Services Program or other NASA organizations, the NASA manager responsible for the launch service shall:

a. Ensure the launch vehicle, its components, and associated payload adapters are procured, designed, operated, and disposed of in accordance with NASA-STD-8719.14.

b. When launch services are provided to a NASA mission, provide debris assessment information for launch vehicles and associated payload adapters to the NASA Project Manager responsible for the integration of a spacecraft for incorporation into the ODAR.

Note: When launch vehicle data is not available in time to support the Table A delivery schedule, with the concurrence of the Chief, SMA, the launch vehicle portion of the ODAR may be separately submitted at a defined later date.

c. When launch services are provided to a non-NASA mission, provide debris assessment information for the launch vehicle and associated payload adapter to the Chief, SMA prior to the payload Mission Design Review (or equivalent similar review) obtain concurrence from the Chief, SMA on an ODAR covering the launch vehicle prior to no later than 30-days prior to launch.

d. Prior to decisions to commit funds to acquire a launch vehicle or launch services, provide notification of potential non-compliances with orbital debris mitigation requirements to the Chief, OSMA and the MDAA sponsoring the mission.

3.2.6 For launch services that are not under NASA's control, per P.2.b, the launch vehicle portion of the mission ODAR should be replaced with a memorandum from the MDAA identifying the governmental or international organization responsible for limiting the generation of orbital debris from and safe disposal of the launch vehicle and its components.

3.2.7 For missions disposing of spacecraft beyond GEO disposal orbits that are not (or will not be) in orbit about another solar system body, the EOMP may be replaced with a memorandum from the MDAA stating the disposal location and conditions, subject to NPR 8020.12.

3.2.8 Project managers, responsible for the delivery of hardware to a non-NASA spacecraft integrator shall:

a. In coordination with the Mission Directorate, distribute and obtain concurrence on an abbreviated ODAR covering such hardware in accordance with NASA-STD-8719.14 and the schedule in Table A.

b. In coordination with the Mission Directorate, negotiate the lead organization for end of mission planning. If the lead organization for end of mission planning is a foreign partner, the End of Mission Plan may use the requirements of the foreign partner.

c. Provide, as part of the hardware delivery to the integrating organization, a version of the abbreviated ODAR that is modified as needed to remove proprietary or otherwise restricted information that cannot be shared with the integrating organization.

d. Provide documented commands and passivation procedures to the spacecraft integration organization, (domestic or foreign partner responsible for spacecraft integration and operations).

e. Coordinate with the MDAA, OIIR, and OCE to determine whether that mission will require conjunction assessment screening.

3.2.9 Project managers, responsible for spacecraft that are deployed from the ISS, may limit the ODAR required per paragraph P.2.d and 3.2.4.4 to the spacecraft portion.

3.2.10 Project managers, responsible for spacecraft planned to remain operational during their return to Earth and land essentially intact, whether carrying humans or cargo, including planetary sample return capsules, shall prepare an EOMP for portions of the spacecraft (e.g., a service module) that will be separated prior to reentry. If the separated item(s) will reenter not far from the crew or cargo module (i.e., all surviving debris expected to fall within the protected range), the EOMP may be replaced with a memorandum stating the disposal location and conditions.

3.2.11 Contents and formats for ODARs, abbreviated ODARs, and EOMPs are defined in NASA-STD-8719.14. The Project Manager may use the abbreviated ODAR format to share orbital debris assessment information between projects.

Milestone Mission Concept Review Preliminary Design Review
(Spacecraft Portion Only)
Mission Critical Design Review Safety and Mission Success Review8 Hardware Delivery EOMP updates once on orbit and final EOMP
ODAR OSMA4
MDAA3
OSMA4,
HEOMD6
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA3
OSMA4,
HEOMD6,
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA3
OSMA4,
HEOMD6
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA5
Abbreviated ODAR OSMA4,
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA3
OSMA4,
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA5
EOMP7 OSMA4,
HEOMD6,
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA5
OSMA4,
HEOMD6
EMD2,
PPO1
MDAA5
  1. NASA Planetary Protection Officer. Distributed for spacecraft traveling to the Moon or another solar system body only. Notification only.
  2. Environmental Management Division, Office of Strategic Infrastructure. Distributed for spacecraft reentering into Earth's atmosphere. Notification only.
  3. Notification only.
  4. OSMA with technical support from ODPO. Concurrence is required. Concurrence indicates that the ODAR or EOMP is considered to be adequate given the project life-cycle phase and that the project is expected to meet requirements or that acceptable mitigations are planned or implemented to address potential non-compliances. Allow 14 days for review and concurrence.
  5. Approval is required. For EOMP, MDAA approval is only required for initial, mission extensions, and final submittals.
  6. For missions that could pose a risk to humans in space. Notification only.
  7. For CubeSat missions that will passively reenter Earth within 25 years with no command from the ground, the ODAR may also serve as the EOMP.
  8. The final ODAR and initial/pre-launch EOMP may be combined and submitted as one document for the SMSR.

3.3 Mission Operations and Termination

3.3.1 The project manager of spacecraft in orbit around the Earth, Moon, or Mars or in the vicinity of Sun-Earth or Earth-Moon Lagrange Points shall:

a. Implement operational measures identified in the EOMP to limit the generation of orbital debris from and safely dispose of the spacecraft.

b. In coordination with the Mission Directorate, establish and implement a plan to monitor spacecraft and launch vehicle stage items defined as critical in the ODAR or EOMP for conditions or events that may affect the planned passivation or disposal maneuvers at EOM.

c. Update or annotate the EOMP when a spacecraft condition or event occurs that significantly reduces the likelihood of success of planned passivation or disposal maneuvers.

d. In coordination with the MDAA, revalidate the EOMP as part of a periodic mission review process by the Mission Directorate (e.g., Senior Review process), but no less than once every two years.

e. In conjunction with any decision to extend the spacecraft mission or change planned procedures for the termination of the mission or decommissioning of space systems, update the EOMP.

f. In coordination with the Mission Directorate, distribute and obtain concurrence on any update to the EOMP within 60 days of the decision or event necessitating the EOMP update.

Note: If the update is triggered by a mission extension, it must be submitted to the OSMA for review at least 30 days prior to the decision on the mission extension.

3.3.2 The Project Manager responsible for operational Earth-orbiting spacecraft shall ensure that:

a. CARA services, including Orbital Safety Analysts at JSpOC, are used for robotic missions and NASA Johnson Space Center Human Space Flight Operations Directorate services are used for human spaceflight missions with or without crew.

b. All maneuvers are planned, screened, and have risk analysis performed prior to execution.

c. An ephemeris and covariance that models planned maneuvers for Earth-orbiting satellites are provided to CARA or NASA Johnson Space Center Human Space Flight Operations Directorate Team for screening by the JSpOC, as necessary, based on mission orbit and defined in mission documentation.

Note: Ephemeris is a file containing a time-ordered set of position and velocity measurements describing an object's predicted trajectory, including modelling of planned maneuvers.

d. Earth-orbiting missions planning a post-launch change to their mission orbit requirements inform the CARA or NASA Johnson Space Center Human Space Flight Operations Directorate group with sufficient time prior to spacecraft maneuvers for analysis of potential co-location or systematic conjunctions with other on-orbit assets.

Note: Operational missions are defined as those that are being actively operated and have not been determined to be past their mission lifetime through the senior review process.

3.3.3 The Project Manager responsible for a mission that will fly around the Moon or Mars or in the vicinity of Sun-Earth or Earth-Moon Lagrange Points shall ensure that:

a. Ephemeris data is provided to NASA for performing conjunction assessments by uploading ephemeris data to the Deep Space Network (DSN) Service Preparation Subsystem (SPS) Portal.

Note: Ephemeris is a file containing a time-ordered set of position and velocity measurements describing an object's predicted trajectory, including modelling of planned maneuvers.

b. Updated ephemeris is provided to the DSN SPS as soon as practical, after a planned maneuver is or is not executed, to allow other spacecraft operators to evaluate conjunction assessments based on the most accurate data possible.

c. Missions requiring trajectory plan changes provide updated trajectories to the DSN SPS Portal with sufficient time prior to spacecraft maneuvers for analysis of potential co-location or systematic conjunctions with other on-orbit assets.

Note: Trajectory plan changes are any adjustments to orbit parameters or the trajectory occurring between launch and end of mission.

d. Conjunction assessments are performed based on the database of trajectory data supplied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) Service Preparation Subsystem (SPS) Portal.

e. A plan for addressing identified conjunctions is submitted to CARA or the Human Space Flight Operation Directorate (CARA or the Human Space Flight Operation Directorate will communicate to all appropriate HQ organizations).

3.3.4 The Project Manager of spacecraft in orbit, in coordination with the sponsoring MDAA, shall promptly notify the Chief, SMA:

a. Upon discovering the spacecraft may have generated orbital debris;

b. At least 48 hours before jettisoning an object or otherwise undertaking an activity that may generate orbital debris;

c. When the spacecraft is within six months of planned EOM;

d. When the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft stage falls below the quantity required to sustain operations for six months and then perform the planned disposal maneuvers (with sufficient margin to ensure a high probability of successfully performing the disposal maneuver).

e. When a spacecraft loses a redundancy or other key functionality resulting in an inability or significant reduction of the likelihood of a successful disposal maneuver as defined in the EOMP.

f. When the Mission Directorate intends to change plans for mission termination or space system decommissioning.

3.3.5 The project manager of spacecraft in orbit around the Earth, in coordination with the sponsoring MDAA, shall promptly inform the Department of Defense's JSpOC prior to planned spacecraft and launch vehicle disposal or evasive maneuvers that result in a change of Earth orbit altitude of greater than 1 km. Notifications are made through the CARA team for unmanned missions or NASA Johnson Space Center Human Space Flight Operations Directorate for manned missions.

3.3.6 The Project Manager, in coordination with the sponsoring MDAA, shall provide the final EOMP to the Chief, SMA with the notification of intent to terminate the mission required by NPD 8010.3.

3.3.7 For operational missions already on-orbit, relief from requirements in NASA-STD-8719.14 is not required for non-compliances caused by design issues that existed prior to launch, changes in the estimated orbital debris environment, or spacecraft anomalies or failures. In contrast, relief from the requirements is required for non-compliances that would be the result of planned operational changes or planned mission life extensions.

3.3.8 NASA payloads and components, jettisoned from the ISS, will comply with ISS Partner Program Directive (PPD) 1011, Multilateral Jettison Policy, in addition to this NPR.

3.4 Reentries

3.4.1 For controlled, commanded, or targeted reentries, the Project Manager shall notify the MDAA, the Chief SMA, and the ODPO about the reentry at least three months prior to reentry.

3.4.2 To augment existing national procedures where the U.S. Department of Defense alerts Government agencies to the impending reentry of NASA-related space objects, the AA/OIIR may, in consultation with the program's MDAA, Chief, SMA, Office of Communications, and the Office of the General Counsel, coordinate amplifying information with other U.S. Government agencies.

3.4.3 AA/OIIR coordinates any NASA press releases for reentries with the Office of Communications, Office of the General Counsel, OSMA, the National Security Council, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) (via Department of Defense Public Affairs), and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, as needed.



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