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NPR 8715.1B
Effective Date: February 01, 2021
Expiration Date: February 01, 2026
Printable Format (PDF)

Subject: NASA Safety and Health Programs

Responsible Office: Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

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Chapter 13. Operational Safety Specific Program Requirements

13.1 Overview

13.1.1 This chapter addresses additional functional areas that should be part of the Centers overall safety and health program.

13.1.2 Unless explicitly delegated elsewhere by the Center, the Safety Manager shall serve as the Institutional Safety Discipline Lead for the following functional areas, with the exception of Motor Vehicle Safety.

13.2 Motor Vehicle Safety

13.2.1 Operators of motor vehicles on NASA property or a NASA vehicle both on and off NASA property shall:

a. Not drive a motor vehicle for a continuous period of more than 10 hours, including a combination of personal driving and driving for official NASA business.

b. Not drive a motor vehicle for a combined duty period that exceeds 12 hours in any 24-hour period, without at least 8 consecutive hours of rest.

c. Not use hand-held communication devices while the vehicle is in motion except for emergency, security, and fire vehicles during official operations.

Note: This includes cell phones, UHF radios, or other hand-held wireless communication devices. When there are two individuals traveling in an emergency, security, or fire vehicle during official operations, the passenger should be the person to use the hand-held communication device.

13.3 Personal Protective Equipment

13.3.1 Requirements for use, training, maintenance, and accountability of personal protective equipment (PPE) are provided in Personal Protective Equipment, 29 CFR pt. 1910, subpt. I.

13.3.2 PPE shall be issued to NASA employees at Government expense in those situations where engineering controls, management controls, or other corrective actions have not reduced the hazard to an acceptable level or where use of engineering controls, management controls, or other techniques is not feasible.

13.3.3 Only clothing and equipment meeting Federal regulations, industrial standards, or NASA requirements for design, manufacturing and testing shall be used for PPE (e.g., eye protection meets ANSI/ISEA Z87.1:2020 - American National Standard for Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices)

13.4 Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout / Tagout Program)

Requirements for controlling hazardous energy, either released or stored, from the potential energization of equipment or machines during service or maintenance activities are given in The Control of Hazardous Energy, 29 CFR 1910.147.

13.5 Confined Space

13.5.1 Requirements for confined space entries involving general industry operations and maintenance are governed by Permit-Required Confined Spaces, 29 CFR ? 1910.146.

13.5.2 Requirements for confined space entries involving construction activities are governed by 29 CFR pt. 1926, subpt. AA (1926.1200- 1926.1213), Safety and Health Regulations for Construction.

13.5.3 Requirements for confined space entries involving telecommunications activities are governed by 29 CFR ? 1910.268, Telecommunications.

13.5.4 Further guidance and information for permit-required confined spaces is provided in OSHA Instruction CPL 02-00-100, Application of the Permit-Required Confined Spaces (PRCS) Standard, 29 CFR ? 1910.146.

13.6 Electrical Safety

13.6.1 Centers shall design, build, operate and maintain electrical systems in accordance to: 1) NASA and Center Standards, Directives, and Processes, (2) OSHA regulations and other applicable regulatory requirements and (3) the national consensus standards - NFPA 70, National Electric Code (2017 edition) and the IEEE National Electrical Safety Code (2017 edition).

13.6.2 Centers shall document and implement a Center Electrical Safety Program to prevent loss of life, injury, and loss of and damage to facilities and equipment in accordance to: (1) NASA and Center Standards, Directives, and Processes, (2) OSHA regulations and other regulatory requirements and (3) the national consensus standard - NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2018 edition).

13.6.3 Centers shall ensure organizations document the qualifications of their electrical workers performing electrical work greater than 50 volts after each employee has completed required training per NFPA 70E and has demonstrated proficiency in the electrical work practices involved with the tasks assigned.

13.6.4 Centers shall ensure organizations performing electrical work at NASA centers audit their electrical safety program periodically, but at least every 3 years in accordance with NFPA 70E.

13.6.5 The requirements for electrical safety are given in:

a. 29 CFR ? 1910.269, Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

b. 29 CFR ?? 1910.301-399, subpt. S, Electrical.

c. 29 CFR ?? 1926.400-449, subpt. K, Electrical.

d. 29 CFR ?? 1926.950-960, subpt. V, Electric Power Transmission and Distribution.

13.6.6 In addition to the above CFR sections, Centers shall build, design, and operate electrical systems in accordance with:

a. NFPA 70, National Electric Code, 2017 edition.

b. NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace 2018 edition.

c. The IEEE National Electrical Safety Code, 2017 edition.

13.7 Hazardous Material Transportation, Storage, and Use

13.7.1 Transport of hazardous materials on both Federal property and public roadways shall be in accordance with 49 CFR subch. C, and State and local laws and regulations.

13.7.2 Hazardous material shall be used and stored in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H, Hazardous Material.

13.7.3 Environment health program requirements are defined in NPR 1800.1. The purpose of these programs is to protect people from hazardous chemicals and materials, nanomaterials, and biohazards.

Note: Samples returned from space are considered hazardous material.

13.7.4 Requirements for Center hazard communications plans are provided in Hazard Communication, 29 CFR ? 1910.1200. This standard enables employees to obtain information concerning the classified hazards of any hazardous material during transport, storage, and prior to use.

13.7.5 Each Center shall ensure facilities and laboratories where hazardous materials are used or stored include:

a. Proper ventilation, to control a potential hazardous exposure, designed according to requirements found in the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH) Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice for Design, 28th Edition, 2016 and the applicable ANSI/ASSP Z9 Ventilation Systems Code:

(1) ANSI/ASSP Z9.1-2016, Ventilation and Control of Airborne Contaminants During Open-Surface Tank Operations.

(2) ANSI/ASSP Z9.2-2018, Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems.

(3) ANSI/ASSP Z9.3-2017, Spray Finishing Operations: Safety Code for Design, Construction and Ventilation.

(4) ANSI/ASSP Z9.4-2011, Abrasive-Blasting Operations - Ventilation and Safe Practices for Fixed Location Enclosures.

(5) ANSI/ASSP Z9.5-2012, Laboratory Ventilation.

(6) ANSI/ASSP Z9.6-2018, Exhaust Systems for Grinding, Polishing and Buffing.

(7) ANSI/ASSP Z9.7-2007, Recirculation of Air from Industrial Process Exhaust Systems.

(8) ANSI/ASSP Z9.9-2010, Portable Ventilation Systems.

(9) ANSI/ASSP Z9.10-2017, Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Dilution Ventilation Systems in Industrial Occupancies.

(10) ANSI/ASSP Z9.11-2016, Laboratory Decommissioning.

(11) ANSI/ASSP Z9.14-2014, Testing and Performance-Verification Methodologies for Ventilation Systems for Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) and Animal Biosafety Level 3 (ABSL-3) Facilities.

b. Eyewashes and safety showers that meet the requirements of ANSI/ISEA Z358.1-2014, 2014, American National Standard for Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment.

c. Considerations to protect personnel and the terrestrial environment against potential biological or toxic hazards due to samples returned from space and protect the samples against terrestrial contamination.

Note: Special facilities should be considered to ensure the integrity of the terrestrial environment as well as the integrity of biological and physical samples returned from space.

d. Additional considerations for biohazards resulting from use or handling of biological materials such as infectious microorganisms, viruses, medical waste, or genetically engineered organisms.

Note: See Bloodborne Pathogens, 29 CFR ? 1910.1030 & NPR 1800.1 sections for bloodborne pathogens and biosafety, for additional details.

13.8 Test / Operations Safety

Note 1: Test/operations safety often involves common industry hazards and unique hazardous phenomena associated with NASA activities. Tests often involve multiple and/or coincident hazardous operation, which should be assessed and coordinated in terms of interactive preparation, operational sequences and associated responses.

Note 2: Operations involving only common industry hazards (e.g., lock-out/tag-out and working on or near exposed energized parts) with a high potential to result in loss of life, serious injury or illness to personnel, or substantial damage to systems, equipment, or facilities are only required to meet the requirements of 13.8.3.

13.8.1 This section provides requirements for NASA unique and/or complex tests and operations that have a high potential to cause loss of life, serious injury or illness to personnel, or substantial damage to systems, equipment, or facilities (e.g., high-risk training activities, research facility operations, and demonstrations of test hardware or procedures).

13.8.2 Test/Operational Design, Planning, and Readiness Center Directors and project managers shall ensure that tests/operations are designed, analyzed and planned to identify and develop adequate safety controls to assure performance within safe operating limits. During design and planning the following should be considered:

a. Designing facility/test systems such that a credible single-point failure (e.g., power loss) cannot result in serious injury, illness, or substantial damage to equipment, property, or test hardware.

b. Providing automated controls where timely response is necessary to reduce risk of serious injury or substantial damage and manual overrides of critical software commands to support safe test termination and egress of personnel.

c. Ensuring timely and unencumbered rescue of personnel involved in the activities (e.g., astronaut crew and pre-test inspection team)

d. Assessing the adequacy of hazard controls to safeguard against injury, illness, or damage to equipment, property, or test hardware.

e. Monitoring hazardous conditions and establishing criteria for alerting personnel of potentially hazardous exposures and/or curtailing/halting test operations to preclude unacceptable consequences.

f. Assessing the interactions with adjacent facilities, operations, or personnel and the adequacy of access controls and communications associated with the activities.

g. Coordinating potential test article damage or loss with the test article owner or controlling program authority and what constitutes an acceptable failure documented in accordance with NPR 8621.1. Center Directors and project managers shall conduct Test/Operational Readiness Reviews for tests involving new or modified hardware or procedures and determine and document the safety, technical, and operational readiness of the test. Center Directors and project managers shall conduct a pre-test meeting with all involved personnel that considers the following:

a. Review of test constraints to ensure facility and personnel safety and criteria for curtailing/halting test operations to preclude unacceptable consequences.

b. Determination of facility, test article, ground support equipment and procedural readiness.

c. Communication of potential hazards, safety procedures, and protective measure to personnel.

d. Availability and readiness of emergency response resources (e.g., medical) and facilities needed for response.

e. Qualifications and training of personnel conducting and participating in the activities and their availability to support.

13.8.3 Hazardous Operational Procedures (HOP) Center Directors and project managers shall ensure tests / operations with a high potential to cause loss of life, serious injury or illness to personnel, or substantial damage to systems, equipment, or facilities have documented procedures that contain:

a. A detailed plan listing step-by-step actions or tasks to be performed to ensure safe operations.

b. Notes and warnings to identify special precautions necessary to protect personnel and equipment.

c. List identifying employees responsible for review and approval of the Hazardous Operational Procedures (HOPs).

d. Contingency plans identifying any special steps to take in an emergency situations.

e. Certifications and training requirements for personnel conducting the operation.

f. Conspicuous markings, such as "THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS HAZARDOUS OPERATIONS PROCEDURES," to alert operators that strict adherence to the procedural steps and safety and health precautions contained therein is required to ensure the safety and health of personnel and equipment. Center Directors and project managers shall ensure new HOPs and changes to existing ones are approved by the responsible authorities (Lead Institutional Safety Discipline Lead, safety office representatives, etc.) according to Center developed policies or procedures. Center Directors and project managers shall ensure HOPs are conducted by trained and certified personnel when safety depends on adherence to specific standards, guidelines, and training (e.g., rigging and high voltage). Center Directors and project managers shall ensure that where the risk of injury to employees performing a task is high, the buddy system is implemented (e.g., an adjacent or nearby person not directly exposed to the hazard serves as an observer to provide rapid assistance in the event of an emergency).

13.9 Human and Animal Research / Tests

13.9.1 In addition to the safety and health requirements in this NPR and NPR 1800.1, research or tests involving human or animal subjects, and facilities used for such, are subject to inspections per:

a. 14 CFR pt. 1230, Protection of Human Subjects,

b. 45 CFR pt. 46, Protection of Human Subjects.

c. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (The Guide), Eighth Edition, 2011, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., and

d. NPD 7100.8, Protection of Human Research Subjects.

13.10 Underwater Operations Safety

13.10.1 The requirements below apply to all NASA underwater operations, including support operations, where members of the workforce are required to work or train in water using an underwater apparatus (including snorkels) that supplies breathing air or gas. It applies to all diving, snorkeling, and training operations.

13.10.2 Project managers shall notify the Center SMA organization and the Center diving control (safety) board before performing diving and snorkeling activities.

13.10.3 Centers that conduct diving and snorkeling operations shall implement a diving safety program that contains the following elements:

a. A diving safety manual (safe practices manual) which includes:

(1) Procedures covering all diving and snorkeling operations specific to the program.

(2) Procedures for emergency care, including recompression and evacuation.

(3) Criteria for diver training and certification.

(4) Criteria for facility and equipment certifications, use and maintenance procedures, and inspection.

b. A diving control (safety) board that:

(1) Approves and monitors diving and snorkeling activities.

(2) Revises the diving safety manual.

(3) Assures compliance with the diving safety manual.

(4) Certifies divers for specific underwater activities.

Note: If a NASA Center without a diving safety program conducts diving or snorkeling operations through another NASA Center or government Agency, such as the Navy, the other NASA Center's or government Agency's diving safety program requirements apply.

13.10.4 The following are useful references when developing underwater safety standards and safety program:

a. Commercial Diving Operations, 29 CFR 1910 subpt. T contains regulatory requirements for diving and related support operations conducted in connection with all types of work and employments, including general industry, construction, ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking, and longshoring. While it is not applicable to scientific diving, it does define two required elements of a scientific diving program: (A) a diving safety manual, and (B) a diving control safety board. Appendix B to Subpart T to Part 1910 contains guidelines for scientific diving.

b. Basic Health and Human Services Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects, 45 CFR pt. 46 subpt. A, contains regulatory requirements that may be applicable to divers participating in research.

c. Commercial Diving Operations, 46 CFR pt. 197 subpt. B contains regulatory requirements for the design, construction, and use of equipment, and inspection, operation, and safety and health standards for commercial diving operations taking place from vessels and facilities under Coast Guard jurisdiction.

d. NPR 1800.1, Appendix C, provides requirements for diver physical examinations.

e. JPR 8715.2, JSC Safety Standard for Underwater Operations

f. SS521-AG-PRO-010 U.S. Navy Diving Manual, has served as the internationally recognized standard, since the late 1950's, for allowable exposure while breathing compressed air at varying depths, and prescribes decompression schedules for dive profiles that exceed allowable exposure limits. It includes volumes on: Diving Principles and Policies, Air Diving Operations, Mixed-Gas Surface-Supplied Diving Operations, Closed-Circuit and Semiclosed-Circuit Diving Operations, Diving Medicine and Recompression Chamber Operations.

g. EM 385-1-1, Safety and Health Requirements Manual, 2014 published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, provides in section 30, Diving Operations, requirements for USACE diving operations. Section 30.G, Scientific Snorkeling, provides requirements for scientific snorkeling activities.

h. FSH 4209.11, Wildlife, Fish, Water, and Air Research Handbook, Chapter 10 "Diving and Snorkeling Safe Practices" by the US Forest Service establishes direction for diving and snorkeling safe practices."

i. The Standards for Scientific Diving Manual, developed by the American Academy of Underwater Sciences, is a consensus standard for scientific diving and presents minimum safety standards for scientific diving.

13.11 Safety Training and Personnel Certification

13.11.1 Purpose

This section describes the requirements for establishing safety training programs and the minimum training certification levels necessary for personnel involved in potentially hazardous NASA operations.

13.11.2 Planning and Implementation of the Safety Training Program Center Directors shall:

a. Formulate and document a comprehensive safety training program (see Figure 13-1 below) at their Center.

Figure 13 1. Considerations for Developing a Safety Training Programs for all Employees outlines that the Center Directors shall formulate and document a comprehensive safety training program at their Center.

Figure 13 1. Considerations for Developing a Safety Training Programs for all Employees

b. Develop and maintain a Center Safety Training Plan.

c. Ensure that all persons engaged in physical work are instructed in accident prevention and fully informed of the hazards involved.

d. Ensure that training for all persons engaged in electrical work includes first-aid procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

e.Ensure that personnel at risk of exposure to cryogenic liquids receive training in correct first aid measures for these liquids.

f. Ensure that operators of motorized equipment (including motor vehicles) have formal initial training, consisting of both classroom and operational testing, if operating the motorized equipment involves skills beyond those associated with normal, everyday operation of private motor vehicles, to assure operator proficiency.

g. Ensure that operators of motorized equipment have periodic refresher training and testing, as determined by the safety office, if operating the motor vehicle requires skills beyond those associated with normal, everyday.

h. Annually review operations being performed at their Center to ensure that the implemented safety training program is working effectively and to identify and include training for jobs that are potentially hazardous in addition to the mandatory listing in paragraph

Note: Employee safety committees, employee representatives, and other interested groups should be provided an opportunity to assist in the hazardous job identification process. Center subject matter experts shall review NASA training materials at least annually and update materials as needed when regulatory agencies or changes in NASA policy documents generate technical changes. Center SMA Directors shall maintain a current copy of the Center Safety Training Plan.

13.11.3 Personnel Safety Certification Programs for Potentially Hazardous Operations and Materials Mission Directorate Associate Administrators, Center Directors, project managers, and line managers shall ensure that:

a. Personnel who perform or control hazardous operations or use or transport hazardous material have been trained and certified with the necessary knowledge, skill, judgment, and physical ability (if specified in the job classification) to do the job safely.

Note: Many NASA operations involve hazardous materials or chemicals, technology, or systems with potential hazards to life, the environment, or property.

b. Personnel obtain hazardous operation safety certification for those tasks that potentially have an immediate danger to the individual (death/injury to self) if not done correctly, or could create a danger to other individuals in the immediate area (death or injury), or are a danger to the environment.

Note: Detailed training and certification requirements may be found in specific NASA Standards; e.g., NASA-STD-8719.9 or NASA-STD-8719.12.

c. All contractor personnel engaged in potentially hazardous operations or hazardous material handling are certified via a process similar to that for NASA personnel. Center SMA Directors shall develop required safety certification programs for their Center. Medical offices and cognizant health officials shall:

a. Determine the need for physical and medical examinations including their depth, scope, and frequency to support certification requirements.

b. Be responsible for medical certification in health hazard and related activities.

c. Oversee or conduct required personnel medical examinations in support of the safety certification effort.

d. Ensure physical and medical examinations to support certification requirements are in compliance with OSHA and other Federal, State, and local agency applicable codes, regulations, and standards covering the occupation or environment including medical monitoring and recordkeeping requirements.

Note: The need for fitness-for-duty examinations should be based on the hazardous consequences of the employee's inability to perform the job correctly due to physical or mental deficiencies. Line managers shall manage the certification program for their employees and contractors in accordance with procedures in this NPR. Hazardous Operations Requiring Safety Certification.

Note: This list is not all inclusive, other safety certification requirements are found in other NASA requirement documents.

a. Center SMA Directors or their designees shall ensure:

(1) Flight crew member certification (FAA licensing may not be sufficient).

(2) Firefighter certification.

(3) Propellant and explosives user certification per NASA-STD-8719.12.

(4) Propellant and explosives handler certification per NASA-STD-8719.12.

(5) Rescue personnel certification.

(6) Self-contained breathing apparatus user certification.

(7) Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus user certification.

(8) High-voltage electrician certification that adheres to NASA and State/local requirements.

(9) Altitude chamber operator certification.

(10) High-pressure liquid/vapor/gas system operator certification.

(11) Hyperbaric chamber operator certification.

(12) Tank farm worker certification.

(13) Wind tunnel operator certification.

(14) Welder certification.

(15) Laser operator/maintenance personnel certification.

(16) Centrifuge operator certification.

(17) Range safety officer certification.

(18) Crane operator certification.

(19) Certification for riggers for hoisting operations.

(20) Heavy equipment operator certification.

(21) Confined space entry personnel certification.

(22) Certification for lockout/tagout personnel.

(23) Certification for individuals involved strictly with the handling, transport, or packaging of hazardous materials that will not otherwise disturb the integrity of the basic properly packaged shipping container that holds the hazardous material.

Note: Operations that involve the reduction of palletized or otherwise combined items of packaged hazardous materials qualify as handling. Center safety officials or their designees may require additional hazardous operations safety certifications.

b. Center SMA Directors who certify individuals to perform or control hazardous operations, or to use or transport hazardous material, shall ensure the individuals possess the necessary knowledge, skill, judgment, and physical ability to do the job in a safe and healthful manner.

c. Certification Requirements.

(1) Center training and personnel development offices and safety offices shall ensure that hazardous operations certification and hazardous material handler certification include as a minimum:

(2) A physical examination (see paragraph

(3) Initial training (classroom, online, and/or on-the-job).

Note: The level and structure of training is established according to the hazards of the job being performed.

d. A written examination to determine adequacy and retention of training.

e. Periodic refresher training as determined by the Center safety official, including review of emergency response procedures.

f. A recertification period as determined by the Center safety official in the absence of any local, State, or Federal requirements (but not to exceed a 4-year interval).

g. Applicable requirements of 29 CFR pt. 1910.

h. Specific training in the Federal, NASA, and local rules for preparing, packaging, marking, and transporting hazardous material and/or equipment operation associated with the job.

i. Center training and personnel development offices and Center safety offices shall ensure that drivers or operators of vehicles transporting hazardous materials are instructed in the specific hazards of the cargo or material in their vehicle and the standard emergency and first-aid procedures that should be followed in the event of a spill or exposure to the hazardous material.

Note: Training requirements can be found in 29 CFR pt. 1910 and 49 CFR pt. 177.

j. Mission Directorate Associate Administrators, Center Directors, project managers, and supervisors shall ensure that:

(1) Personnel who are hazardous-operations-safety-certified or hazardous-material-handler-certified are identified through the issuance of a card, license, or badge (to be immediately available) or a listing on a personnel certification roster or database.

(2) Personnel certification rosters indicate the name, date, materials or operations for which certification is valid, name of certifying official, and date of expiration

13.11.4 Hazardous Materials and Chemicals Risk Information Mission Directorate Associate Administrators, Center Directors, project managers, and supervisors shall ensure that:

a. The risk of all hazardous chemicals produced or imported are evaluated and included in their safety training and certification program.

b. Information involving the risk of all hazardous chemicals is made available to all employees in accordance.

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