Effective Date: October 07, 2015
Expiration Date: September 30, 2024
|| TOC | Change History | Preface | Chapter1 | Chapter2 | Chapter3 | Chapter4 | Chapter5 | Chapter6 | Chapter7 | Chapter8 | Chapter9 | Chapter10 | Chapter11 | Chapter12 | AppendixA | AppendixB | AppendixC | AppendixD | AppendixE | AppendixF | AppendixG | AppendixH | AppendixI | ALL |
6.1.1 A requirement exists for facilities maintenance managers throughout NASA to use modern maintenance systems and methods to control their work activities, account for resources they are provided, and monitor and report work execution through the full use of various industry standard metrics and other management indicators. Because of the scope, complexity, and high value of the NASA Center facility inventories, all NASA Centers and Component Facilities use CMMS.
6.1.2 All NASA Centers and Component Facilities use a common CMMS throughout the Agency to streamline and simplify reporting, consolidate and centrally manage seat licenses, and reduce CMMS costs. NASA Centers and Component Facilities that are acquiring new CMMS systems shall purchase the common system.
6.1.3 All data, including all resource costs (labor, materials), equipment, and incidentals, should be available for Government use and retention for historical purposes, regardless of whom, Government or contractor, is responsible for populating and maintaining the database. Where a contractor operates the CMMS, it shall be made clear in the contractor's contract that the CMMS maintenance data is Government property and will be turned over to the Government at the end of the contract.
6.2.1 Chapter 3, Facilities Maintenance Management, discusses the functions, processes, management concepts, and system of controls recommended for facilities maintenance. Centers should evaluate their maintenance management data requirements and establish their electronic data needs prior to investigating and acquiring a new common system version CMMS or modifying an existing common system version CMMS. Centers should acquire only what is required to accomplish the maintenance organization goals.
6.2.2 Centers shall budget resources to initially populate the systems (modules) and to maintain the CMMS data.
6.2.3 Centers shall use their CMMS for day-to-day operations and management of the Center's maintenance program to be cost effective. Periodic review of the CMMS data should be made to keep the system abreast of current requirements, deleting unnecessary data entries and adding new ones as required.
6.3.1 Facilities maintenance management automation brings the benefits of automation to facilities maintenance functions and processes. Chapter 3, Facilities Maintenance Management, not only discusses functions recommended for facilities maintenance but also identifies closely related supporting functions and processes. The CMMS should directly support or interface with existing related automated systems such as the financial accounting module of the System Application Products (SAP), RCM databases, and personnel administration systems.
6.4.1 The Center's CMMS shall support the major functions discussed in the following sections as they apply to facilities maintenance. Information entered in the functional areas of the CMMS is critical for the day-to-day maintenance operations, management of the Center's maintenance program, providing data to support the budget process, and providing historical information critical for use in performance-based contracting.
6.4.2 In all of the functional areas, items entered should contain key management information such as criticality codes, condition codes, and downtime associated with an item. Descriptive nomenclature of items shall be standardized to permit the sorting of data.
6.4.3 If data is available in separate databases, Centers shall provide a link between those and the CMMS to collect total maintenance costs, including material and subcontract costs. See Appendix E for typical monitor screen CMMS images used for various functions.
188.8.131.52 Managing Facilities and Equipment. This function contains the facilities maintenance processes and procedures to be used in managing the facilities maintenance workload. In addition to the automation of the administrative processing associated with maintenance management, the major advantage of having a CMMS is the capability to process a large amount of data to identify trends that would not be readily apparent by reviewing individual work orders. This processing provides the data needed for benchmarking and for preparing facility condition assessments. A major effort of the CMMS is tying together the various RCM activities. This function also includes facilities planning and processes normally associated with CoF funding and shall support those portions of CoF work that are a logical outgrowth of the facilities maintenance effort, such as repair, modification, or rehabilitation. The following sections highlight files/modules that are a part of most CMMSs and that are used in managing maintenance programs.
184.108.40.206 Facility/Equipment Inventory. These data files/modules contain a detailed inventory of all facilities and maintainable collateral equipment subject to the facilities maintenance management system (and could include other information, if needed, for planning, space management, or accounting purposes). For facilities, these files/modules include information such as identifier, size, cost, date acquired, category codes, uses, location, users, material condition codes, and other similar information. For equipment, they include nomenclature, manufacturer, part number, cost, serial number, date acquired, size, location, identifiers to major system or use, warranty, specific facilities maintenance requirements, life expectancy, and similar information. Current and reliable data will enhance analysis and budget preparation and may be needed in developing customer charges under NASA's Cost Accounting System. Tables 3-1 and 3-2 list representative data elements.
220.127.116.11 Work Input, Control, and Scheduling. This data file/module contains information on work requested by customers, work generated internally, and work status as it proceeds from requirement identification to work completion or request disapproval. It includes information on customer, cost estimate, funding, scheduling for execution, and execution status for each work order. This data provides the ability to track facilities projects, requests for facilities maintenance, TCs, and SRs. The CMMS may include the capability to receive work requests and accomplish the approval process electronically. Centers should establish a Web site on the local Intranet to provide customers with a link to work status reports and any other appropriate maintenance information. A selective combination of electronic and voice interface with customers provides the best support. Appendix D provides sample forms for use in facilities maintenance, including several in CMMS database formats.
18.104.22.168 Reliability Centered Maintenance. This data file/module contains information on facilities and equipment criticality codes, maintenance requirements, and schedules. It contains data on required maintenance actions for equipment and facilities predictive testing test points, diagnostic aids, references to or excerpts from original equipment installation and O&M manuals and equipment drawings, schedules, frequency, materials, safety requirements, and related procedures. Linked with the inventory, the combined data files can be used to create PT&I schedules, PM schedules, and work orders or PM task descriptions for use by technicians and mechanics. Criticality codes will be recorded and updated on an iterative basis as missions and environments change. The CMMS should include the ability to analyze PT&I results, process parameters (including normal baseline temperature, pressure, and flow readings), diagnose the possible causes of abnormal readings, project trends in test results, and schedule facilities maintenance actions or further inspection based on the trends. PT&I "finds" and their corrective work shall be identified in the CMMS to ensure that priority work is highlighted and tracked. Information and data in the PT&I database should be made available to maintenance engineers, managers, and craftspersons through the CMMS. This will ensure that pertinent information needed for maintenance and failure analysis is readily available.
22.214.171.124 Correlation of Maintenance Data. Benefits can be realized by correlation of various metrics, trends, and data from the PM, PT&I, and other databases. An important function of a CMMS is to automate that correlation, with limit alarms, as new input is made for followup action.
126.96.36.199 Continuous Inspection. This data file/module contains information for the continuous inspection program. (See section 10.5, Continuous Inspection.) It should include facilities maintenance standards, facility condition inspection schedules, and inspection and test procedures. Linked with the inventory, it can be used to create the inspection orders and work sheets used by inspectors. The results of inspections from PT&I, PMs, operators, facility managers, facility users, and facility condition inspections should be entered in the CMMS history files for use in the FCA.
188.8.131.52 Facility/Equipment History. These data files/module contain summaries of the maintenance histories of the facilities and collateral equipment. They contain summaries of PM, PGM, repairs, TC, rehabilitation, modifications, additions, construction, and other work affecting the configuration or condition of the items. They include completed and canceled work orders. These files also include the current material condition assessment of each item, derived from the continuous inspection program, for use in developing the FCA and the DM. By using the CMMS to tie the FCA to the continuous inspection program and specifically to the PT&I database, condition assessments will be more current and equipment condition information, short- and long-term repair and replacement requirements, and DM information are available to the facilities maintenance managers and craftspersons when needed. The maintenance history records can be used to support proactive maintenance techniques, such as root-cause failure analysis and reliability engineering.
6.4.4 Additional Database Functions. The functions discussed above are typically found in NASA Center CMMSs. The functions in the following paragraphs may be included in the CMMS or, in most cases, in separate databases that should be interfaced with the Center's CMMS.
184.108.40.206 Providing Utilities Services. Utilities services are essential to a Center in that no operations would be possible without the electric power, steam, water, and related services they provide. Utilities also represent a major cost of operations. Computer support, both in terms of direct control of system components and analyses to identify losses in efficiency, is vital to energy conservation efforts as well as to effective system maintenance and management for optimal reliability and cost efficiency. The utilities data file/module contains detailed information on utilities consumption, distribution, use, metering, allocation to users, and cost. It could include modeling capability and linkage to utility control systems.
220.127.116.11 Assistance in Formulating and Administering Contracts. Contracts provide the majority of Center facilities support services. In many cases this extends to both recurring facilities maintenance efforts and one-time, specific facilities maintenance projects. Computerized support for contract preparation and administration in support of the Contracting Officer is essential for a well-managed facilities maintenance program. This data file/module contains information on contracts supporting the broad spectrum of facilities maintenance management as required by the Contracting Officer, Contracting Officer's Representative (COR), and Quality Assurance Evaluators (QAE). With other database files, it provides a picture of each contractor's past performance, current loading, and planned work. It could include information on specifications, Government-furnished property, quality assurance, payment processing, delivery orders issued, schedules, and related matters. It should cover both contracts for specific facilities maintenance requirements and support services contracts.
18.104.22.168 Developing Budgets and Performing Cost Analyses. Management is largely the process of allocating and directing resources to accomplish an organization's goals. The functions listed above focus on facilities maintenance work and work methods. The budget and cost analysis functions obtain and track resources. In an environment of competition for limited resources to perform an ever-expanding workload, managers need sophisticated tools and techniques to account for resources, demonstrate efficient use of resources, and prepare persuasive requests for future resource allocations. Computer support to perform in-depth analyses of requirements is essential to meet this end. Refer also to Chapter 2, Resources Management.
22.214.171.124 Reports and Metrics. This function can be customized for each Center's use as part of the CMMS, provided other key information, such as complete cost information and project management data, is available. Management should define for all maintenance and operations the management information required from the contractor and civil service staff so that results/performance-oriented reports and metrics can be developed in the CMMS and tracked. This will ensure that the Government can analyze and evaluate performance and overall maintenance management at that Center.
126.96.36.199 Job Estimating. This data file may contain shop or flat rate guides, estimating tables, work performance (time and motion) standards, such as engineered performance standards, labor and material rates, and local cost and time factors in computer-usable form. Sources include commercial services, Government-developed standards, developed Facilities Engineering Job Estimating (FEJE) software, and local experience. After the P&Es define the work elements comprising a job, they can use this data file to estimate task and work order crafts, materials, equipment, tools, time, and costs.
188.8.131.52 Tools/Materials. Tools and material data files typically contain the inventory of centrally managed tools and materials for use in support of facilities maintenance. The material data file aids in assigning materials to work orders, supports the preparation of material requisitions, tracks the receipt of materials on order, and documents related information. Also, these data files record accountability data for shop tools and equipment.
184.108.40.206 Environment. This data file contains environmental information, including permits, licenses, the history of violations and citations, potential hazards, environmental compliance and related actions underway, and tracking of work or materials of special environmental interest. For example, it might include data on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) or asbestos hazards. This file can track the disposal of hazardous waste and hazardous materials or the need for and processing of renewals of discharge permits. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules require detailed records on the management of ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) used as refrigerants. These records can be accommodated readily in a computerized database.
220.127.116.11 Space Management/Planning. This data file typically includes user name and user data for each facility, space within the facility, or other managed asset. It may include other information for use in managing the space, such as configuration, utilities services, finishes, furnishings, environment, communications, assigned function or task, environment, communications, and accounting information.
18.104.22.168 Facility Graphic Documentation and Configuration Control
a. Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), Geographic Information System (GIS), Building Information Model (BIM), and similar mapping and facilities management systems permit the electronic management of spatial data and related attributes for large bases, facilities, or individual buildings. This data can include maps, drawings, photos, and other documentation. Many of these systems offer a three-dimensional model of a facility plus associated databases that together provide a powerful facilities engineering configuration management and decision support environment. For example, a GIS for a facility could include data describing precise location of buildings, streets, parking, sidewalks and underground utilities networks (water, gas, electricity, sewage, storm drainage). Modern implementations of these spatial data technologies, such as GIS, fully integrate numerous discrete map features and their attributes. This integration allows visualization and analysis such as traffic volume, pavement condition, utility capacity, and landscaping.
b. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) GIS system is a well-known and very powerful spatial data management and analysis tool. This suite of tools has been site licensed by NASA and is available for use by all Centers. The ESRI GIS environment is best known for managing plant-level data; however, it may also be used to manage building interior data. Alternatively, the tool that is best known for building-level design modeling for construction is AutoDesk's REVIT. Both of these products support digitization, attribution of features, overlaid display, and analysis of various data. These technologies hold great promise for facilities maintenance applications, such as improved efficiencies in locating specific equipment.
c. Spatial data documentation can include references to electronic data files such as: digitized manual drawings, manufacturers' shop drawings, as-built drawings, and drawings prepared at the Center. Master plan documentation is another example of the use of this information. Centers should require the submission of all drawings, particularly those for facilities projects, in an electronic format that is compatible with the spatial data management environment they chose. Also, Centers should consider digitizing or scanning existing drawings and documents for inclusion in their electronic spatial data management environment.
22.214.171.124 Providing Management Support. Management support functions provide the routine internal organizational, administrative, and overhead processes. They include functions related to internal administrative support, document tracking, and personnel accounting performed within the facilities maintenance organization. While the internal management support functions do not interface directly with the facilities maintenance customers, shortcomings in this area directly impact customer support. Dealing with largely administrative matters, management support function productivity can improve through automation. Well-established computer software programs are available for these areas. However, automation of management support and administrative functions is outside the scope of this NPR.
6.5.1 The following functions may be integrated into a center's CMMS or may be provided by other software packages that interface with CMMS or stand alone.
126.96.36.199 Peripheral Systems. There are peripheral systems that can be integrated into the CMMS to enhance facilities maintenance operations. These systems can be more efficient, reduce paperwork, and provide more accurate and complete records in accomplishing maintenance tasks. The selection of a system should be based on the specific maintenance requirements, a cost study, and resource availability. The following are some systems that could be considered.
a. Bar Coding Systems. There are a number of bar coding systems available that can be employed in a Center's facilities maintenance program. These systems vary from the simple identification of an equipment item to sophisticated systems that permit input and downloading of data. Systems are available that permit bar code tags to include such things as the equipment item's history and its preventive maintenance program. These tags are updated along with the CMMS as changes take place, thereby, providing current status at any time. Systems include software that shall be integrated into the Center's CMMS and handheld bar code readers (terminals) with high-contrast liquid crystal displays (LCD) and a keyboard system that can be used by the technician performing the work. Systems may include a beeper subsystem that confirms scanner and keyboard entries and alerts the operator of error conditions.
b. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the wireless, noncontact use of radio frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data for automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Some tags are powered by and read at short ranges (a few meters) via magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction). Others use a local power source, such as a battery, or have no battery but collect energy from the interrogating electromagnetic field, and then act as a passive transponder to emit microwaves or UHF radio waves (i.e., electromagnetic radiation at high frequencies). Battery-powered tags may operate at hundreds of meters. Unlike a barcode, the tag does not necessarily need to be within line of sight of the reader and may be embedded in the tracked object.
(1) RFID tags can be attached to cash, clothing, everyday possessions, or even implanted within people. The possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised privacy concerns. RFID tags are not new technology, but they are fairly new in the facilities arena. In 2011, less than 10% of the construction industry had implemented some form of RFID-enabled asset management system, experts estimated. When RFID tag readers are readily available through a smart phone application, the cost will drop significantly, at which time RFID Tags will start to replace Barcodes for equipment identification and information.
(2) In one system, a technician's daily schedule and task instructions are downloaded from the CMMS into a handheld terminal and given to the craft person at the start of the shift. When the technician arrives at the work site, the equipment bar code tag is scanned. This registers the arrival time and displays the equipment item maintenance functions to be performed. As each work item is completed, the technician checks it off using the terminal keyboard. This process continues until all functions have been completed. Any comments are entered, and the equipment bar code tag is scanned again to record the completion time. The technician then proceeds to the next work location and goes through the same scenario. When the day's work is completed, the handheld terminal is returned for downloading into the CMMS where the equipment files are electronically updated. The next day's work schedule and instructions are then downloaded to the handheld terminal for use on the next shift where the process is repeated.
(3) Another system utilizes a radio frequency or a cellular digital system to communicate with the Center's CMMS. In this system, a technician is given a handheld terminal at the start of the shift. A paper copy of the day's work schedule is provided to the technician or the schedule has been downloaded from the CMMS into the handheld terminal. When the technician arrives at the work site, the equipment bar code tag is scanned. Using the bar code tag identification the handheld terminal is connected by radio frequency, or a cellular digital system, to the CMMS where the equipment item's history and the day's work functions can be displayed on the handheld terminal's LCD, as needed. As work is completed, the information is entered in the handheld terminal by the technician and through the wireless system recorded in the CMMS. With this system, the real time status of assigned work is recorded in the CMMS for review at any time.
c. Handheld Tablet Computers. This is another CMMS peripheral system that is available for use in a Center's maintenance program. This is a wireless system where information flows to and from the Center's CMMS. The system could be used to eliminate paper-based work orders, particularly those for TCs, small SRs, and minor repair jobs. This would reduce the workload on the work control center and the technicians. With this system, the technician receives work orders, work order changes, and updates electronically. The technician reports work start electronically, and when work is completed, the completion report and comments are entered electronically. Because information flows wirelessly to and from the CMMS, the work control center sees the exact status of every assigned work order, from assignment through work start to completion. At the end of a technician's shift, the handheld computer is returned for the next shifts' use.
d. Quality Assurance Database. At least one NASA Center has developed software that assists QA evaluators (QAEs) in monitoring performance-based contracts (Payment Analysis and Support System developed by Johnson Space Center (JSC)). Typically, QAEs inspect and evaluate the contractor's performance using Surveillance Guides associated with each contract line item number. Summary results are entered into the database by portable data collectors, and the program tabulates all entries and calculates deductions for unsatisfactory work and work not performed. The advantages of using this and similar databases are labor reduction by reducing redundant operations and mathematical calculations and by maintaining good contract documentation without the paper.
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